Volume 14, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 1-704

The Opposing dualities in Poetry, the Structure of Formation and the Vision of Formation: a Critical Approach to the Poetry of Amr Ibn Laja' Al-Taymi

Wissam Jaafar Al-Tamimi

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176334

In the guidance of this critical approach, it becomes clear to the researcher the reality of what poetry is, as it is the literary genre that is firmly rooted in the collective memory, and the most profound in depicting the various kinds of facts. Things and facts that were hidden under his cloak.
The research was organized in two sections, the first of which was characterized by (opposing dualities in poetry, the structure of composition and the vision of formation, and it dealt with the nature of the contradiction, its stylistic structure, and its views among critics and its concepts, ancient and modern, in a way that reveals its importance to us, and describes its presence in the poetic text in general .
As for the second topic, it came as an application of critical approaches that dealt with the topic of contradiction in the structure of a pre-Islamic poetic text, the poetry of Amr bin Laja al-Taymi, by picking up his antonyms in a group of his poems achieved by the late scholar Dr. Yahya al-Jubouri within a large series of eyes of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry.

Literary ingenuity in Writing the Altruistic Biography - Ahmed Hassan Al-Zayyat as a Model

ahmmed addel aziz alrawi

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 20-55
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176335

Proceeding from the concept of altruistic biography, which is concerned with narrating events, news, and conditions that occurred to a person, old or new, this research comes to study and analyze different personalities who were subjected under the microscope of a literary insight from the writer Ahmed Hassan al-Zayat in his book Wahi al-Risala; To give a quick article look at a group of thinkers and greats in the so-called "altruistic biography", which represents the second part of the art of translation, which is the "autobiography".
The research remedy with the sources of creativity involved in the style of Zayat in this type of literary arts, through several stations monitored by the researcher culminated in the analysis of three models that I chose to be a witness to the creativity and ingenuity that Zayat wrote in line with the title of the research (literary prowess in writing altruistic biography - Ahmed Hassan Al-Zayat as a model.

The Psychological Connotations of Color in Ode's Zuhair Bbin Abi Salma

Sondos Qassem Abdullah

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 56-79
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176336

This study is an attempt to investigate the connotations of colour from the psychological side in the ode of Zuhair Bin Abi Salma, as it delved into the depths of the meanings, looking for what colour can suggest, based on the apparent meaning. Then to move away from this meaning until the reach of what the poet feels from the meaning of each colour, I have followed the colours that were mentioned in the ode, whether those colours came at the level of verbal declaration or at the level of colour synonyms, this was done by extrapolating and analyzing the evidence, and the colour axes were concentrated in: (black, red, and blue), the aim was to identify the effectiveness of colour and its function in the poetic context; Because it is the context that determines the significance by its interaction with the general meaning of the house or the main idea of the subject, from the study it is revealed that clear is not limited to being a visual phenomenon only, but it has gone beyond that to mental, philosophical, aesthetic, tasteful, emotional, and psychological connotations, it also has another connotation that may be similar to the fixed connotations or differ according to the context. The attention in this study was focused on psychological connotation.

Diwan of Abd al-Rahim bin Ahmad bin Ali al-Bura’i al-Yamani, who died in the year 803 A.H. “Objective Study”

Yusra Muheisen Ali; Firas Abdel-Rahman Al-Najjar

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 80-102
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176337

Sheik Abdul Rahim Al-Buraie did not address all the poetry issues in Arabic in his poetry. He only dealt with a limited number of them, and he also stopped most of his poetry for one purpose, which is to praise the Prophet. At the same time, he did not neglect other systems for other purposes, including the poem of the Lampstand, the plea of the Almighty, the praises of the Prophet's companions (peace be upon him), and of his Sufi sheiks, as he wrote poems in exhortation, advice, and guidance, and the description of nature had its place in his poems.

Rhetorical methods and their role in prophetic Expression in Al _Bari Al_Seniki (T:926i)

Dalal Abdel Fattah Al-Gohani; Ali Matar Al-Dulaimi

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 103-140
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176338

The Messenger ,may God bless him and grant him peace ,knew the messenger of the eloquent tongue , as his sayings .Represented in the three sciences of rhetoric , the sciences of meanings, the statement and the Badi ‘Al _Biladi’s curriculum and its role in the prophetic expression with Al_Bari’s , scholarship , and it was divided into : three sections . in the first topic , I studied semantics , in the second study , I studied the Al_ Badi method , and in the third topic , I studied the pain of the conclusion ,in which I mentioned the most important results of the research. 

Hypothetical Heterogeneity and the Effectiveness of Transformation in the Qur’anic Context (An Applied Study in the Evidence of Badi’ Al-Qur’an By Ibn Abi Al-Isbaa’ Al-Masri)

Maqasid Bashir Mahdi; Irmid Matar Hamad

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 141-180
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176339

This paper on variation and the effect of transformation in the Qur’anic context is one of the investigations that stand behind the aesthetics of rhetorical types and the reason for the reader's attachment to them. To stir the reader's attraction, the process of choosing or selecting words to express a situation requires that this choice be different from what people are accustomed to. I selected (Badi’ al-Qur’an) as it contains a number of inventive arts through which the aesthetics of the Qur’anic context or poetic evidence is revealed, which is Ibn Abi al-Asba’ al-Misri’s use of the term variation.

Realism in the Poetry of Abu Al-HusaynAl-Jazzar Al-Masry (D. 679 AH) ((Analytical study))

Kamal Abid Nasser

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 181-222
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176340

Our research talks about realism ((in the poetry of Abi Al-Hussein Al-Jazzar)), who is considered one of the poets of the seventh century AH, as he was the most prominent poet of his time; It has a special place for princes and leaders at the time, so we dealt with realism in his poetry, and what is the important role of the poet in highlighting a fact and talking about it with all honesty, in the embodiment of the poetic image, so realism took an important space for its connection in his entire life, so it was the really serious and honest realism stemming from the sincerity of his passion and his sense, and we also touched upon his cynical realism through what he witnessed of the painful and bitter situation and reality in his life; which depicts misery and a life of poverty; His loud voice was in proposing what came to his mind, Which marked his hair as realism.

The Status and Status in the Light of the Methods of Explanation (Poetry of Miskin Al-Darmi by choice)

Maha Fawaz Khlifa

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 223-244
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176341

The situation and the station were sponsored by those interested in the rhetorical lesson in the past and moved between multiple scientific branches that covered it with the cloak of importance and necessity to reach the impactful goals of the creator. On observing the impact of status and station in the formation of the methods of statement by the Umayyad poet Miskin al-Darami (89 AH), and the scientific material required presenting the research with two demands. Statement, The analogy was one of the appropriate stations for the situation by holding the formal similarity according to the mental requirement, as well as the creator’s act with the metaphor that enabled him to catch and consolidate the meaning, while the metonymy took the longest way to establish the argument and bring the proof to consolidate the meaning according to the requirements of the situation and the station.

Al-Ashmooni's grammatical efforts in guidance the Arabic names in his book Tawdhih al-Tawdhih

Mohammad Shaker Jassem; Abdullah Hamid Khalaf

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 245-270
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176342

AL-Ashmooni has grammatical efforts came in sequence in his book (Tawdhih al-Tawdhih (Sharh Awdah Al-Masalik Ela Alfiyat Ibn Malik), especially that he is a well-known scholar, who became famous between the ninth and tenth centuries AH. So, it took me to collect and limit these efforts, so that the researcher and reader can easily search and investigate. Besides, for time and effort considerations and in hope that it becomes for future use . I also presented the method used by Al- Ashmooni in his weighting of controversial issues, relying on the verses of the wise male and the Hadith of the Prophet (SAW), and the poetry and proverbs of Arabs، and then the conclusion counted the results reached

Morphological applications in the light of innovative approaches: The descriptive approach and the normative approach as a model

Noor Fayeq Al-Rawi; Ahmed Safaa Abdul-Karim

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 271-289
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176344

This research aims to reveal the innovative aspects that were applied to the Arabic language in its morphological aspect, presenting these models, and comparing the ideas and theories that the modernists reached with what the ancients followed in this aspect. descriptive and normative approach; This is because our Arabic language, with its characteristics, has taken care of these two approaches, and their applications have become clear on it.

The Reason for Confusion or Confusion in the Book "Sharh Al-Mamluki in the Interpretation of Ibn Yaish"

Muhammad Karim Al-Hiti; Zafer Khairallah Al-Ani

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 290-309
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176345

The phenomenon of the cause is one of the important phenomena in the language, and on its basis many scholars relied on the interpretation of some grammatical and morphological issues, so we discussed in the research one of the types of morphological defects, which is the cause of confusion or ambiguity, according to a distinguished scholar of Arabic, Ibn Yaish, in His book: Sharh Al-Maluki fi Al-Tasrif, to show the extent of the effect of this reason on some morphological rulings, and from God is success  

Vocabulary of movement in the poetry contained in the Epistle of Forgiveness: A lexical study

hadeel rood tahseen

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 310-336
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176346

Summary After the intention was established to study the words of movement in the Message of Forgiveness according to the theory of semantic fields, and extrapolating and enumerating those words and relying on a new approach based on the generation of one text from several texts, the reader finds it as an integrated and coherent text as if it was transferred from a single lexicon.  A group of words that were specific to indicating a kinetic meaning, and verbs had the greatest share in them as they indicate occurrence and renewal, and there are semantic differences between each of them in meaning and use, and these differences are guided to them depending on the context.

Methods of Vocabulary Control in the Dictionary of Mashari’ Al-Lughah by Youssef Bin Ismail Bin Ibrahim (died after 812 AH) An applied study

Ahmed Mohammed Alfahdawi; mustafa kamil albikati

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 337-350
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176347

This research aims to reveal the methods of vocabulary control which were used by the linguist Youssef Bin Ismail Bin Ibrahim, who died after the year 812 AH in his dictionary Mashari’ Al-Lughah). I have limited this study to be from the letter Zaay to the end of the letter Ayn. The research consists of an introduction, a preface, two chapters, and a conclusion. 

Linguistic Evidence in ' Sharah Al-Shama'il Al-Muhammadiya’ by Merck Shah Al-Sherazi (Died after 930 AH)

Jabbar Ali Al-Halbosy; Esra Salah Ibrahim

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 351-375
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176348

This research aims to reveal the most important linguistic evidence that Sheikh Merck Shah Al-Shirazi relied on, in his book Sharah Al-Shama'il, to prove linguistic and grammatical rulings, and to clarify the grammatical origins of vocabulary and structures, as well as his translation of strange words that were mentioned in the hadiths.

(Chapter of Tha'a) From the book (Al- Falah Theory in Definition and Terminology) by Ahmed Nazhat Al -Rahawi Al-Qustanteeni (died 1192 AH) – study and investigation

Athraa Dawood Sulayman; mustafa kamil albikati

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 376-412
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176349

This research tackles (chapter of tha'a) from Al- Falah Theory in Definition and Terminology by Ahmed Nazhat Al -Rahawi Al-Qustanteeni (died 1192 AH) with study and investigation, this authorship that is considered one of the specialized lexicons that has multi science. This research requires to fall onto two parts; the first is for the study and the other is for the text to be investigated. The research ends with a conclusion includes the results I reached to.

Morphological Structure of the Verbs with One Vowel in Alisbaah by Ibn Hilal Alhalabi (died 933 AH)

Mohammed Abd Hussein; Rafid Hameed Khalaf

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 413-436
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176350

This research deals with the morphological structure of the verbs with one vowel in Alisbaah by Ibn Hilal Alhalabi (died 933 AH), and shows their types and what may affect them such as substitution and omission during derivation. This research is divided into three sections: the first section discusses the verb with a vowel letter (Almethal), the second discusses the verb with a vowel letter (ALajwaf) and the third discusses the verb with a vowel letter (Alnages).

Pronouns at An Explanation of Qala'id Al-Ta'rif in Morphology by Sharaf Al-Din Ahmed bin Mahmoud bin Umer Al-Jandy (D. 669 A.H.) -Study and Editing-

Omer Zahid Hamdan; Jasim Muhammad Suheil

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 437-446
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176369

This research aims to A Study and Editing Pronouns at An Explanation of Qala'id Al-Ta'rif in Morphology by Sharaf Al-Din Ahmed bin Mahmoud bin Umer Al-Jandy (D. 669 A.H.) One of the morphological books That we have received from scholars of the seventh century AH, The difficulty of morphology on science students The author organized this science into three morphological systems small, medium and large To make it easier for them to understand And our study was one of the author's systems chapters and the largest is she Al-Qala'id Which contained most of the chapters on morphology, and he made them into twenty-five poems, with different rhymes Each of them includes a chapter on morphology In his book, he was interested in morphological and phonetic definitions in clarifying the scientific material by explaining the system in linguistic terms so that the strange words are clear and known to the reader. Via the morphological analysis, which was characterized by brevity and non-repetition That is why this research came.

The letters in the Holy Quran and their relationship With the defirators' character

Kamel Ibrahim Hodeib

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 447-468
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176370

The research aims to stand up on the close relationship between the letters of the answer and the imprisonment of the Quran and the study of the placements in which the answer occurred in advance of the questioning of the question. the search for results was highlighted: that yes to a response to the recipient delivery, may be an insecticidal question to if the pancake security.
The Letters Of the answer in the Quran were signed as follows: (yes)
Signed in four positions, and (two) signed in two twenty positions, as for (then) there is no answer to the question in the Noble Qur’an. 'ahruf aljawab fi alquran alkarim waealaqatiha bi'ahruf alaistifham

Employing the Qur’anic witness in the dictionary of Mashari’ al-Lughah by Yusuf bin Ismail, who died after the year 812 AH. From the letter Ghain to the end of the letter Laam

Mohammed Watban Al-Hayani; Laith Qahir i Al-Hiti

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 469-480
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176371

This research aims to employ the Qur’anic witness in the dictionary of Mashari’ al-Lughah by Yusuf bin Ismail, who died after the year 812 AH. the research process is limited from the letter “ghain” to the end of the letter laam and it   consists of an introduction, a preface, two chapters, and a conclusion

Linguistic Correction for Contemporaries (Kitab Tadhkirat Alkatib) – As a Model

Abdul Muttalib Najeeb Ahmed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 481-496
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176375

This Search is marked as (The linguistic correction for contemporaries, Asaad Daghers as a sample. Book This search explains the melody truth for Arab scientists, its meanings and the roots of this word. We also explained the method of the author in dealing with the mistake, and his correction and his dealing with the letters and the Patterns and how he dealt with the development of patterns and induction. He included European languages in his criticism and we explained the mistakes that have been committed by the author.

The Poetics of the Mundane in Frank O’Hara’s Selected Poems

Hisham Abdulsattar Waheed; Anan Alkass Yousif

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 497-522
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176376

The act of walking or strolling and exploring urban places of the metropolis is a dominant aspect in the poetry of Frank O’Hara (1926-1966), a prominent American poet and the leading figure of the New York School during the 1950s and 1960s. O’Hara is largely known for his poetic portrayal of the city stroller who enjoys city detouring as a pragmatic and poetic representation of the urban culture, city crowds, and everyday experiences of postmodern America. The paper’s purpose is to explore the poetic vision of O'Hara's art of strolling the metropolis not as a mere arbitrary self-isolation or escape from the anxieties of the post-industrialized world. Instead, it argues for the value of flânerie or the leisurely city sauntering as a cultural and artistic act of creating the poetics of the mundane. It is a poetics that detects the value of the quotidian and spatial meaning in the most seemingly ordinary places of the consumerist and capitalistic American culture. As the figure of the flâneur or stroller is discerned in O’Hara’s poetry, the study underlines the significance of his poetic advocacy of perceiving, exploring, and interacting with the dynamic as well as the gruesome and consumerist sides of the urban environment of the metropolis. 

A Pragma-Stylistic Analysis of Selected Siegfried Sassoon’s Poems

Aws Nasri Hamad

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 523-543
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176377

This study investigates the pragma-stylistic analysis of the style of selected Siegfried Sassoon’s war poems. Lawal’s (2012) model of pragmatic theory and Leech and Short’s (2007) rhetorical devices have been adopted for the present research. They reflect adequacy concerning the pragmatic elements and rhetorical devices that are needed for the pragma stylistic analysis. Four war poems have been selected, namely, “Suicide in the Trenches”, “The Dug-Out”, “The Hero”, and “The Death Bed”. The study aims to identify the adopted pragmatic elements in the style of war poems and their influence on the style of the poet and the presented message. The analysis shows the use of representative speech acts more frequently than other types. Also, the war poems tend to use person deixis as the most used type of deictic expressions. Finally, psychological, physical, and linguistic contexts are the main types of contexts in all the war poems.

Unhomeliness Vs. Hybridity: Women’s Suffering and Crisis of Identity in Elif Shafak’s Honor

Qusay Khalaf Hussein

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 544-563
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176378

This paper examines Elif Shafak's novel Honor, which was released in 2011, using Homi K. Bhabha's concepts of unhomeliness and hybridity. The study observes the predicament of first and second-generation immigrants from patriarchal cultures to Western societies with laws that differ from the rules of traditional communities. Those immigrants try to hybridise and adapt to the values and customs of the new culture to which they are exposed. The critical study of the novel shows the conditions of two sisters, Pempe and Jamila, who constitute the novel's cornerstone in a destitute household of eight daughters, as well as the mother's frantic attempts to conceive a son. The two sisters live in a patriarchal culture that thinks a man has the right to rule over everything. Subsequently, Pempe marries Adam Topark, and they move to England, where they experience a state of unhomeliness and hybridity. Women suffer from unhomeliness and alienation, even in patriarchal societies, as a result of patriarchal constraints.

An Ecofeminist Reading of Woman Vision in Elizabeth B. Browning’s A Dead Rose

Aliaa Abed Mohsen; Mohamad Fleih Hassan

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 564-583
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176395

Elizabeth B. Browning is one of the most influential poets in the literary arena of the Victorian age who boldly had challenged the constriction of the patriarchal culture scratching her name in the history of the greatest poets. Her natural revolutionary notions and highly conscious awareness, acquired from her pursuit and thirst for knowledge which is not available for women in the nineteenth century, unleashed the conscious female identity inside her to be the mother tongue of the oppressed women. Thus, many literary studies have tackled Elizabeth Browning`s works within the lenses of feminism. However, these literary studies overlook the role of nature that dominates much of Browning`s poetry as a womb nurtures women`s awareness and empowers her vision to roar against woman’s marginalization and nature’s oppression. Therefore, this study employs the ecofeminist frame of Susan Griffin’s Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her to investigate the relationship between woman and nature in Elizabeth Browning’s A Dead Rose. Women and Nature refute the patriarchal contentions that the closeness between women and nature is an expression of passiveness and weakness. Accordingly, this study concludes that the relationship between woman and nature is a relationship of regeneration and activation.

Domestic Abuse in Caryl Churchill's The Hospital at the Time of the Revolution

Noor Aziz Abed; Majeed Mohammed Midhin

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 584-597
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176396

This study aims at analysing Churchill's The Hospital at the Time of the Revolution. It explores Child Abuse and the reasons behind family abuse to their children. Furthermore, the study investigates the issues that incited child abuse. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher makes use of “Urie Bronfenbrenner in the Bioecological Model of Human Development theory". The present study is significant because it is concerned with everyday activities due to which children are subjected to parental abuse, in other words, the emotionally painful events that cause psychological, physical, and sexual disturbances in children. The current study builds a clear image of child abuse in Caryl Churchill's selected play.

Rhetorical Move Analysis of Iraqi Post Graduate Students' MA Linguistics Thesis Abstracts

Marwan Salah Abbas; Juma Qadeer Hussein

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 598-616
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176398

Many researchers have recently been interested in the Genre-based analysis of the manipulation of academic writing language such as the rhetorical moves of the thesis abstract section. Genre-based analysis of rhetorical move structure provides a keen eye on the effective organizational and functional aspects of abstract components. These rhetorical move structures have often been overlooked or written differently by different writers, especially in the Iraqi context, that is, M.A linguistics thesis abstract section written by Iraqi postgraduate students. A few studies on rhetorical move structures have been conducted in the Iraqi M A linguistics university context, hence more studies are required. To this end, thirty M.A linguistics thesis abstracts have been purposively selected from three Iraqi public universities representing different parts of Iraq. Therefore, the current study is a genre-based analysis of the rhetorical move structure of Iraqi Post-Graduate Students. Swales (2004) model has been adopted to qualitatively analyze the rhetorical move structures of the thesis abstract. The findings revealed that there were few researchers following the structure of (Move1, Move2, and Move3). Also, there was a misuse of M2. Finally, the study implicates further application of genre-based analysis in both EFL and ESL contexts.

When Memories Haunt: A Psychological Approach to Trauma in Hosseini’s The Kite Runner

Shaimaa Muhammad Ahmad; Alan Ali Saeed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 617-631
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176399

This thesis is a psychoanalytic study of Khaled Hosseini’s novel The Kite Runner. The life of the Afghani people is captured in the novel and how the regret the main character feels for not doing certain things that can change the course of his life. The characters of the novel are haunted by their childhood memories. Being possessed by these traumatic memories control their subsequent actions and behaviors. How memories can traumatize these characters, and their reactions once they find themselves in similar situations that remind them of what they have experienced are explored and analyzed. The current study anchors its interpretative structure in the traditional, psychoanalytic framework, it aims to diverge from and expand it in different ways. It interprets the trauma victims’ silence or uncreatability as an intentional act of resistance rather than their failure to remember and relate their stories. Moreover, it reads the novel in the context and spirit of recovery rather than within the traditional trauma theory’s limited theoretical frame of acting out, madness, and illness. 

Reflection of Pain in Nature: Psychoanalytic Reading in Stanley Kunitz's Selected Poems

Noor Salim Idan; Asmaa Khalaf Al Jumaily

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 632-651
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176401

      This research examines the reflection of pain via nature.  Stanley Kunitz is an American contemporary poet. Five of his poems are used to reflect his hidden pain. His father's suicide several weeks before his birth left deep scars in his heart during his childhood and accompanies him the rest of his life. This pain and childhood injury are hidden in the unconscious mind, which is the store for repressed desires, pain and dark wishes. The psychic pain assumes different forms like need, loss and anger. It reappears in adulthood to haunt Kunitz's life and his poetic work entirely. Kunitz's endeavor to face his injury failed due to his mother's effort to kill any blurred memory belongs to the lost father. This atmosphere has a vital role in shaping Kunitz's tattered identity. The signs of pain have not been buried entirely, but they appear in the forms of need, depression and anger. Freudian theory of depression and the unconscious are applied to Kunitz's texts. The article concludes that hidden pain can be expressed indirectly by uses nature and its elements

Ageism and Elder Abuse in Velma Wallis’s Two Old Women

Amina Nidham Jabir; Lamiaa Ahmed Rasheed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 652-665
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176402

Ageism is attitudes and behaviors that reflect prejudice against older people. There are many forms of abuse against parents including: physical, financial, emotional and sexual abuse.This paper defines ageism as having attitudes, prejudices, actions, and activities against persons differ only because of their age. Velma Wallis's Two Old Women presents the elderly people and explores their abuse and mistreatment by both close and strange persons. The author uses an Alaskan myth/folktale about two women to reveal the main problems of elderly people. In particular, the two women have to submit to the difficult decisions of the tribal leadership and have been through very hard times and ordeals which they passed by their bravery and patience. 

Iraqi EFL Learners' Comprehension of Indirect Speech Acts in Literary Texts

Mariam Asaad Dakheel; Ammar Al Abdely

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 666-693
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176403

EFL learners exhibit differences in their ability to communicate successfully in English language. More specifically, they may respond differently in their quest to determine the intended meaning of indirect speech acts in literary texts. Even though, EFL learners have knowledge in the grammar and word meaning of the L2 or the FL, they are assumed to suffer in identifying the intended meaning due to their lack of the necessary functional information. Accordingly, the current study is an endeavor to examine the pragmatic competence of Iraqi EFL learners at the university level, more specifically, their ability to identify intended meanings behind indirect speech acts in the novel ''Jane Eyre'' by Charlotte Bronte (1847). Based on its objectives, the type of research methodology used is qualitative and quantative one as it analyzed the data numerically and the utterances qualitatively. The research design includes five parts: the introductory part, the previous  studies part the literature review part, the methodology part, and the analysis part. The study utilized a recognition test to be the study instrument applied to a sample of participants who were selected randomly including (20) EFL learners at fourth stage. The Relevance Based Approach to Speech Acts was followed with some modifications made to suit the study objectives. The study findings revealed that Iraqi EFL learners encountered difficulties when identifying the intended meaning of indirect acts. In addition, they tend to choose the direct and relevant information to represent the intended meaning. The unsatisfactory comprehending ability of indirect utterances can be ascribed to the learners' lack of pragmatic competence. 

The Representation of Transitivity Clauses in Iraqi EFL Learners’ Literary Performance

Rana Abduwahid Fadhil; Muslih Shwaysh Ahmed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2022, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 694-704
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2022.176404

The present study investigates the functions of representing transitivity clauses in Iraqi EFL learners' literary answers. The representation of transitivity clauses is a linguistic case in which the learner uses different processes to analyze literary items. To this end, the study adopts Halliday's SFG of transitivity processes to analyze students' answers of the third class of the English department in drama, Hamlet. The study concludes that transitivity processes are represented in learners' answers. Transitivity processes realized in the samples of literary answers of the third class of the English department are variant. Mental and verbal processes recur the highest degree of use among other transitivity processes, 25% each, whereas existential process scores the lowest, 1%.