Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-140

The Functionality of Clause Complexing in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

Prof. Dr.Majeed U. Jadwe; Inst. Dr. AbdulRahman H. Abood

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92379

The aim of this paper is to carry a statistical analysis of the processes of clause complexing in selected lengthy extracts from James Joyce's novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) to show that the development of Stephen's language is directly related to the growth and maturation of his metal capabilities. The paper shall adopt Halliday's functional approach to clause complexing in the analysis of Stephen's language over the five chapters of the novel.

A Pragmatic Analysis of Paradox in Donne's Sonnets

Prof.Dr. Zydan Khalef Omer

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92384

This paper examines the poetry and poetics of Donne in order to elucidate the ways in which he balances the use of paradox and gives its reconciled resolution. The model proposed to analyze paradox in this study is an eclectic model depends mainly on Grice's model of cooperative principle and implicarure to analyse the extent to which Grice's conversational maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner are flouted by Donne in his sonnets. In addition to that Searle's model of speech acts will be examined since each of these paradoxes has a certain illocutionary force in their specific context. Hence, the context is an important factor to figure out the poet's main intention.


Muhammed Bakir Sulaiman; Himdad A. Muhammad

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92386

This study deals with the problems of passivization that third year students of English departments at the college level face. It is an attempt to identify the difficult areas and suggest remedial steps to overcome them. The population of the study is third year college students of the English departments of College of Languages and College of Basic Education at Salahaddin university-Erbil. A test ,which covers the whole tenses of English language, is administered to the sample of the population to find out to what extent the college students face difficulties in both recognition and production of passive sentences. The results show that the college students face difficulties in recognizing and producing passive sentences, and the students' errors are due to the factors of interlanguage, intralanguage and context of learning.

Ambiguity in Geoffrey Hill's Selected Poems

Assist Prof. Dr Qais A. Abdulla; Dhuha A. Hamadi

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 33-45
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92387

This study is an attempt to investigate and analyze linguistically Empson's Seven Types of Ambiguity (1947) found in G. Hill's selected poems: September Song and Ovid in the Third Reich. Empson's Seven Types of Ambiguity shows the omnipresence and power of ambiguity in literature and involves a tension that drives creativity. This study aims at revealing those ambiguous expressions, which make an obstacle between the speaker/writer and his/her hearer/reader. These expressions which have multiple interpretations form difficulty and obscurity on the part of the receiver. Context is very important and plays a vital role in determining the meaning of words .In order to make a communication between the speaker/writer and the hearer/reader, this topic should be studied to understand Hill's poetry, which is characterized, by difficulty and obscurity.

A Discourse Analysis of the Linguistic Strategies in the Debate between Moses and Pharaoh

Dr. Hameed Mchayet Fayyadh

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 46-64
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92390

This study is intended to analyze the effectiveness of linguistic strategies used in the debate between Moses and Pharaoh and how they are best used in order to overcome an opponent and to persuade the listeners. Such strategies, when used well, can be very powerful tools to shape public feelings and opinions about certain issues, as there is an intrinsically situated rhetorical motive in the persuasive use of language. It is important for the listeners to be aware of these strategies in order to be discerning listeners, making the right judgment and not just swallow what is presented to them. The method of analysis is to locate expressions where linguistic choices seem to have been made in order to convey certain views. The linguistic strategies explored in this study include:the use of pronouns, modality, propaganda language, and lexical repetition. The study concludes that debates are verbal battles in which each side uses different linguistic techniques to discredit the other side.

The Speech Act of Complaint: A Contrastive Study of Iraqi and Chinese EFL learners of English

khaldoon Waleed Husam; Assist Prof. Jumma Qadir Hussein

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 65-81
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92395

This research investigates the pragmatic ability of Iraqi and Chinese English language students to make complaints in English in different contexts. To evaluate the effects of different cultural dimensions on speech acts of complaint, discourse completion tests, which are used in linguistics and pragmatics to test language proficiency and measure the pragmatic ability of students, were administered to undergraduate students of English from College of Arts/University of Anbar, Iraq and College of Arts/Beijing Language and Culture University, China. The responses of students were then compared to responses obtained from native English speakers of British nationality on the same test. Results have shown that Iraqi EFL learners of English are rather far behind the linguistic and pragmatic competence in performing speech acts of complain while their Chinese counterparts are more indirect than both the Iraq EFL and native British speaker in performing speech act of complain. The results of this study are useful in amending pedagogic process of teaching English language use in countries, such as Iraq and China, where English is not widely used.

Harold Pinter's Silence: The conflict vanishes

Ansam Riyadh A. Almaaroof; Prof. Yousif Omer Babiker

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 82-92
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92397

Harold Pinter who is Nobel Laureate for Literature (2005), is well-known as one of the greatest writers in a body of literary work that consists of thirty-two plays, twenty-one film scripts, one novel, and numerous poems. Besides being a productive writer, he has been a director, an actor, and a political activist in the second half of the twentieth century. This paper handles Pinter's characterization in the first one-act play that denotes Pinter's second phase of writing, Silence (1968). The paper hypothesizes that Pinter throughout his second stage of writing has tried to give the impression that the conflict which has been appearing throughout his first stage of writing is vital to get full-life characters. And without such conflict, there will be neither protagonist nor antagonist. Character analysis will be the implement of discussion. The argument concludes that Pinter has used out of touch characters to indicate the idea that conflict is an essential part for life continuation and character's construction.

T.S. Eliot’s Aesthetic Theories of Tradition and Impersonality: New Perspectives

Leila Bellour

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 93-104
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92398

This paper is a daring attempt to test the verity and validity of the terms tradition and impersonality, which are central to T.S. Eliot’s artistic theories. It demonstrates that despite the fact that Eliot coins a theory of impersonality and divorces the sufferer from the poet by setting emotions at odds, he does not cling to his impersonal stance. In some essays, he proposes the personal aspect as a prerequisite for artistic creation. Eliot pays a great tribute and respect to tradition because it is a framework, which helps him develop his individual talent. Though the poet, according to Eliot, must write ‘with his dead ancestors in his bones, in order to recreate monuments of the past’, he still adheres to the romantic principle that the poet should strive for originality and individuality. So, as the paper aspires to vindicate, Eliot’s theories of impersonality and tradition are difficult to prove right.

Concept of Womanism in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon

YasirMutlib Abdullah

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92399

Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon (1977) is one of the prominent novels in the African-American literature. It revolves around signifying the importance of the black culture in the life of the black people and particularly of black women. The paper, through the myth of the flying African who escaped slavery and left his wife behind, sheds light on the significant role of black women in their community and focuses on the term womanism as it is derived from this role.

Utopian Tendencies in D. H. Lawrence's Women In Love

May Ahmed Majeed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 114-126
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92400

D. H. Lawrence's Women in Love (1920), shows the impact of industrialism in human life. The machine has wrapped human nature and bent it away from its true sources. Lawrence dreams of a utopian society, freed from individual capitalism and its destructive treatment of the individual. It is an ideal state of consciousness, which requires the employment of psychological insights that are effective in transforming human personality.

Postcolonial Reading of George Packer's Betrayed

Instructor; Majeed Ismail Fayadh

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 127-140
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2014.92401

George Packer's play Betrayed (2008) is considered as an anti-war play which depicts the betrayal of the Americans for the Iraqis who collaborate with its forces especially the translators. A Post-colonial reading of the play also shows the recurrent image of the Oriental man in the Western literature ( of course here the Iraqi people who are depicted as either naïve, simple, and stupid or extremists, fundamentalists or terrorists). The study also shows the contradictions in the text. the play is , on the one hand, a propaganda and a justification of the war and on the other hand it reveals the false claims of the Americans of liberating the country and reconstructing it making it a democratic country.