Volume 13, Issue 4, Summer 2021

Syntax and significance of Sentence On the arguments of grammatical victory in the book Al-Munsif of al-Kalam on Mughni Ibn Hisham by Al-shumani (872 A.H.)

Liqa Ghafouri Nader; Prof. Ahmed Hashem Al-Samarrai

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171118

This research aims to present an applied study on Syntax and the concept of Sentence On the arguments of grammatical victory in the book Al-Munsif of al-Kalam on Mughni Ibn Hisham by Al-shumani (872 A.H.) The significance is in terms of two considerations, namely: definitive and probabilistic significance, and apparent or hidden significance. As for the syntax, it deals with the sentence that does not replace the singular, and it has no place in the parsing, and the sentence that replaces the singular, and it has a place in the parsing.

نشر الإعلام على الأیادی فی تحقیق جمع الید الجارحة على الأیادی لمحمد بن محمد المراغی المالکی الجرجاوی المتوفى بعد سنة 1355هـ

أ.م.د. إسراء صلاح خلیل

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 22-43
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171120

The heritage manuscripts in Arabic sciences and other valuable and useful treasures that our ancestors left for later generations, so this research is based on the study and investigation of one of those manuscripts, which is specialized in morphology in how to collect the prey on the hands, as the research included a study of the manuscript and its owner, and then An investigation of the manuscript text included writing the manuscript in modern naskhi script with adherence to punctuation marks, extracting texts from their sources, introducing the flags mentioned in the manuscript text, and commenting on some paragraphs that need clarification in the margin.

غایة الطلب فی معرفة کلام العرب لمحمـد بن أحمد بن عیسى المغربیّ المالکیّ (ت1016هـ)

م.د. عصام محمود کریکش

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 44-72
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171122

"Ghayat Altalab Fi Ma'arifat Kalam Alarab" is a book authored in 9th century by Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Eisa Almaliki Almaghribi (died-1016 H.D). It was authored to shorten the grammatical fields to simplify memorizing and transfer. The aim of this research is to re-author and study this book.

القلب المکانی وأثره فی الدلالة دراسة تطبیقیة فی معجم الراموز على الصحاح

أ.م.د هدیل رعد تحسین; مها عماد عبید علی

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171124

The present paper deals with a phonetic phenomenon that depends on the assimilation or convergence of sounds, to achieve the phonemic harmony in articulation. The two researchers have preferred that the study be about Al-Ramuz(symbols) on Al-Sihah of Mohamed Bin Al-Sayyed Hassan (died in 866 H.), one of linguistic dictionaries. The sections of the research are various, according to its topic. A preface (a presentation of the author and his book Al-Ramuz on Al-Sihah), a definition of the metathesis, its reasons, the evidences by which it is known, and then selective models of the metathesis phenomenon from the dictionary of Al-Ramuz on Al-Sihah. I concluded that some vocables change their significance according to the change of the locations of their letters, some of other vocables do not change their significance, but their purpose is to make a kind of ease and facilitation in articulation. I found that the metathesis phenomenon in consonants, depends on three measures: the extrinsic convergence between adjacent sounds, the convergence in the phonemic qualities of sounds, or the impact of the strongest sound on what is next to it.

مظاهر التأویل النحوی فی کتاب النکت فی القرآن للمجاشعی المتوفى سنة 479هـ

م. محمود عبد اللطیف فواز

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 91-117
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171126

The research deals with the most important aspects of grammatical interpretation that have been mentioned by Al-Majashei in his book “Alnokat Fe Al-Qur’an.” He mentioned the omission issue, which included deleting the noun, verb, and letter, in addition to mentioning the introduction and delay. Thus, he has contributed significantly in clarifying it through solving the disagreement among grammarians and investigating their points of view relevant to this topic. He also interested in the subject of the increase of prepositional letters mentioning the increase of letters from the grammatical point of view only, in addition to his interest in accepting other meanings required by the context through the subject of carrying on the meaning, and embedding in both parts, including the inclusion of a verb in the place of another verb and its transgression with the letter of the other verb and delegating the letter in the place of another letter. These are the most important manifestations of grammatical interpretation that were mentioned in the book.

مسعف الطلبة النّحویة لبیان أنَّ المصدریّة، للشیخ حسن بن عمر الشطی الدمشقی الحنبلی (ت1274هـ)

أ. م. د. رافد حمید سویدان

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 118-152
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171128

Many grammarians when coming to mention the base form of the verb and try to divide into explicit one and the one derived from (inna – if) and what it comes with، they confine themselves to this kind of division and unfortunately they don’t come across to other types. Those talented grammarians believe that there are other clear distinction between them. They actually state these difference may affect even marriage and divorce contracts clearly and considerably.This form of the verb has many states and the conclusion has different inner messages taken from this base.This paper concludes the text preceded by two chapters; the first is the author study and the second is the manuscript and finally the references and a bibliography.

القصص التاریخی الدینی فی أدب الأطفال فی العراق (1970 م- 2018م)

سارة مازن قحطان الربیعی

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 153-169
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171130

This study aims at shedding light on the genre of historical-religious narrative for children, written in Iraq within the duration of almost five decades, between 1970 and 2018. The study gives a definition of the historical-religious narrative, sets its boundaries, and specifies its sources. Next, it describes the nature of this literary genre in Iraq, to come to an explanation of why it was not prevalent before the nineties of the twentieth century. The study then conducts an analytical examination of two narrative examples of similar content, but targeted at two different age groups, namely, middle childhood and late childhood, underlining the characteristics of each, and the differences between them due to the difference in target. the study finally draws attention to the importance of careful consideration when presenting this narrative genre, in view of its present and future significance.

Polyphonic manifestations in Adnan’s Al-Sayegh The Anthem of Uruk Reading in Polyphonic Languages and Styles

Harith Yaseen Shukur

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 170-189
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171132

Although polyphonic as a literary term was born with prose and became a synonym for and closely related to the novel in particular as it possesses a dense narrative that distinguishes it in this aspect from other literary genres, however, no matter how special and inherent in as it appears, it remains, for these species, an interactive partner par excellence. To prove that, the researcher starts from the idea that the term polyphony is a flexible term that tends to include different literary genres. As the novel, poetry has become a point of alliance of different views that converged upon it and entered into its structural fabric, and helped it shift from the dominance of a monolithic vision to a new framework that allows pluralism, whether at the level of multilingualism, styles, characters, ideologies, patterns of consciousness, or others. The researcher will perceive this diversity through four mechanisms: hybridization, stylization, typesetting, and then minted phrases.

التضاد فی شعر الحلاج

أ م د. ناظم حمد خلف السویداوی

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 190-214
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171133

The research talks about the contrast of Al Hallaj’s Poetry which is covered mainly with mystery and the hidden meaning. This makes the researcher to create many imaginations and hypothesis which reveal the inner emotions of the poet and the hidden meaning. This research talks about the subject in two axes:1.Talks about the contrast in nouns.2.Talks about the contrast in verbs.These two axes have semantic in Al Hallaj’s Poetry. Thus, the contrast revels the elucidation the meaning in a covered way and shows the aesthetic features of Al Suwfia’s poem.

Poetry and narrativ by Nizar Qabbani

Inst.Dr.Othman Abed Saleh Abbas

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 215-236
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171135

The poetic experience of the poet is influenced by social factors and influences, as well as by the major political changes taking place, and we found Nizar Qabbani among the most Arab poets whose poetry stuck to these influences, and is one of the most famous Arab poets in the twentieth century, because of his boldness and presentation of ideas realistically, but this dealing adopted by the poet with his poems made him lose a lot of artistic elements that should be available in the poem, his poems in love and singing women were closer In his political poems, it became more regressive with the presence of direct reporting and rhetoric that is devoid of artistic features, despite the few poems we found in Nizar's poetry that refer us to the truth of art from questions, revelations and foresight ".

فعالیة الإیقاع الداخلی فی النص الشعری دراسة بلاغیة

أ.د. محمد عبید صالح; الباحث نبیل مبروک علی

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 237-260
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171138

I sought in this study to highlight the rhetorical characteristics of the poetic text through the internal rhythm. The research raised a level of expressive analytical levels for the purpose of studying rhetoric, as it dealt with five demands: (paronomasia، counterpoint, repetition, rotation, initiation, and Epanalepsis).

A Sociophonetic Analysis of Lexical and Epenthetic Vowels in Iraqi Arabic

Fuad Jassim Mohammed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 261-273
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171140

In recent years, a considerable research has been conducted to examine epenthetic vowels (Alghamdi, 1998; Hall, 2006, 2013; Gouskova & Hall, 2007, 2013) This paper aims at investigating epenthetic vowel in word onset CC cluster in the Arabic dialect of Hit, Iraq (HIA) from an acoustic perspective. It provides an acoustic analysis of vowel epenthesis in this dialect and presents phonetic correlations between the lexical and epenthetic vowel /a/ in singleton contexts. This study builds on previous studies that investigated temporal and spectral i.e. vowel duration and formant frequencies F1 and F2 characteristics of epenthetic and lexical vowels in several Arabic dialects. It has been reported that in HIA the short vowel /a/ is elided in open unstressed syllables, resulting in onset two consonant clusters. For example, the word /bana:t/ ‘girls’ is pronounced as [bana:t] in Standard Arabic and Baghdadi Iraqi dialect, while in HIA it is pronounced as [bna:t]. It has been observed that this dialect began to insert an epenthetic vowel within onset CC clusters. Despite this fact, no previous acoustic analyses of this type have been conducted on this dialects. The present paper presents an empirical evidence to the universal as well as language-specific acoustic features of lexical and epenthetic vowels and relates such evidence to social variables i.e. speakers’ gender. Ten native HIA speakers were recorded (5 males/ 5females), their average age is 35. All participants were born and raised in Hit and were doing their postgraduate studies at the time of conducting the recordings. In total, the ten participants produced 480 tokens as included in a carrier sentence /aqu:l……. marte:n/ ‘I say……twice’. Acoustic measurements have shown that there are considerable spectral and temporal differences among speakers; all speakers produced shorter, higher and baker epenthetic than lexical [a]. In terms of gender differences, male speakers produced higher and more retracted lexical and epenthetic /a/ than female peers There were significant gender variations across HIA speakers in the production of epenthetic and lexical vowels.

Quenchless Propensity for Masculinity: A Textual Analysis of David Rabe’s The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel

Prof. Dr. Hamid Hammad Abed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 274-285
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171143

David Rabe (1940- ) is one of the most prominent American playwrights who frequently tackles the socially serious issues. Consequently,this study will focus on analyzing the protagonist’s eagerness for attaining the sense of masculinity. Rabe has confirmed the impossibility of achieving an ideal masculinity via enthusiastic delusion. In The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, Rabe has investigated what threatens and spoils the ethical texture of the American Army specially in wartime. His portrayal of war carries a satisfactory interpretation since it mirrors his own military life during Vietnam War. This play Looks great not purely because of Rabe’s employment of a realist technique, but in urging the spectators to be familiar with the quenchless propensity of his protagonist. The significance of this study lies in its textual analysis of the title’s character, who fails to understand the warnings and orders of his commander during the period of the basic training.

Using Collocation List as an Instrument to Identify Linguistic Metaphors in The Independent

Assist. Prof. Dr. Imad Hayif Sameer; Assistant Lecturer Sahira Ahmed Mahmood

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 286-299
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171145

This study aims to investigate using a list of collocations as an instrument to identify metaphors in the language of newspapers ( The Independent). This study is concerned with identifying metaphors by using collocation list.Collcation as a linguistic phenomenon means two or more words that go together in a text. This phenomenon can be considered as the best instrument to identify lingustic metaphor in large texts. This is because sometimes one of collocation’s component parts is used metaphorically. This collocation is called a metaphorical collocation. This study comes as a support to the previous ones that view collocation list as an instrumentthat helps researchers to identify metaphor in large data like the language of newspapers.In this study, the researcher selects certain list of collocations from the independent, and appliesa method of MIP suggested by Pragglejaz Group (2007) as a method of identifying metaphorically used words. This qualitative study is based on identifying linguistic metaphors in certain list of collocations (five samples selected from The Independent).

Halliday’s Perspective of Modality in Iraqi EFL Learners’ Essays

Awham Rasheed

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 300-321
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171147

The present study attempts to investigate the function of modality in the Iraqi EFL learners’ essays at the college level based on discourse analysis theories It aims to identify the EFL University students' competence and knowledge of the types of modality and use them in writing to reach a high level of persuasion, hence, characterizing Iraqi learners’ peculiar communicative style. To achieve this aim, the study adopts Halliday’s (1985/1994) modal of SFG (Systemic Functional Grammar) to render a statistic of modality types, whereby thirty essays are chosen randomly as data of this study, Writing Essay Material, Third Year Class, English Department, College of Education for Humanities, University of Anbar, 2018-2019. The finding of the study reveals that since the subject under analysis is argumentative, students are free to use the types of modality, therefore, the types of modality are vital to help students express their opinions in persuasive way. This refers to the vital communicative value of modality types.

Working-Class Identity in Gillian Slovo's The Riots

Zahia Khudier Harhosh; Asst. Prof. Majeed Ismail Fayadh

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 322-340
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171150

The image of the traditional working class has been shattered and replaced by Chavs image as a significant representation of the working-class in 21st century Britain. This paper aims to articulate working-class subjectivity and the struggle over the meaning of class in Gillian Slovo’s The Riots (2011). It aims to investigate working class culture as a significant interest that determines workers' life chances in modern society. The paper consults Bourdieu's main concept Habitus and Owen Jones' book Chavs: The Demonization of the working class which explores the class hatred during Thatcher's years. Working-class individuals become unemployed, drug abused, and criminals, eventually were forced to live in poverty of mind and body. Working-class individuals find themselves out of their works because of the government policy that plans to destroy them to remove any power that stands against their political decisions. Working-class individuals behavior, their language and taste become the main standards to identify their identity. Finding this new discourse is not a demonstration of poverty, exploitation and oppression or even alienation but the reflection of one's deviation and behavior.

Re-Writing the Feminine Myth in Adrienne Rich's I Dream I'm the Death of Orpheus

Ruqaya Ibrahim Mohammed; Dr. Mohamad Fleih Hassan

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 341-355
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171152

Feminist writers always work on representing women in literature positively through rewriting her history and her role in the society. They intend to liberate her from the constrains of patriarchal myths and history which confined her image to passivity and weakness. As a feminist poet, Adrienne Rich uses her poetry to empower woman's status by exploring the influence of the patriarchal language and history which contributes to undermine woman's position in the society. She used her feminine discourse to deconstruct the patriarchal myths and to re-write them again in order to inscribe women's names in these myths as an equivalent power to the power of males. Thus, the present study aims to investigate Rich's discourse of re-writing mythology in her poem, I Dream I'm the Death of Orpheus. The study approaches her discourse of female difference in language in light of Helene Cixous's theory of écriture feminine. The study concludes that woman's different use of language in light of Cixous's concept can be a vital strategy of empowering women rather than weakening and inferiorizing them.

Simon Stephens's Motrtown: Veteran's alienation in light of Sebastian Junger's Notions

Sumaya Majeed Slebi; Asst. Prof. Majeed Ismail Fayadh

Anbar University Journal of Languages & Literature, 2021, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 356-365
DOI: 10.37654/aujll.2021.171154

The alienated homecoming veteran is an important subject in modern societies that affects the fabric of everyday life. Alienation is a sense of nostalgia of a homecoming who comes again to his country to find himself strange among his family and friends. This paper examines the alienation of a homecoming veteran, who leaves his country and takes risks on behalf of his people for sake of their safety. The homecoming veteran who experiences a tribe-like life in the army hopes to re-establish the same old relations in the army. Yet, he discovers that this society is by no means like his previous one. Thus, this study aims to investigate how the veteran is alienated from his society when returning home, and that leads to show the veteran inability to reintegrate or make healthy and balanced relations. Moreover, the study shows how does such veteran lose the sense of communal life in the army. Throughout a textual analysis and by depending on Sebastian Junger's Notions that he outlines in his book Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging (2016), this paper analyses Simon Stephens's Motortown (2005) from Junger's notions of homecoming veteran.